The Role of Dynamic Dark Pools in Ponzi Schemes Masquerading as Securitized Loan Pools

The bottom line is that there are no financial transactions in today’s securitization schemes. There is only fabricated paper. If you don’t understand the DDP, you don’t understand “securitization fail,” a term coined by Adam Levitin.

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I received a short question today to which I gave a long answer. The question is “What happens when an investor decides that he or she wants to cash it in does someone redeem their certificate ?”

Here is my answer:

YES they get paid, most of the time. It is masked as a “trade” on the proprietary trading desk of the CMO Dept. which is completely unregulated and reports nothing. As long as the Ponzi scheme is going strong, the underwriter issues money from the investor pool of money (dynamic dark pool -DDP). It looks like a third party bought the “investment.” If the scheme collapses then the underwriter reports to investors that the market is frozen and there are no buyers.

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There is no redemption because there are no certificates. They are all digital entries on a server. Since the 1998 law deregulated the certificates, reporting is limited or nonexistent. The entries can be changed, erased, altered, amended or modified at will without any regulator or third party knowing. There is no paper trail. Thus the underwriter will say, if they were ever asked, whatever suits them and there is no way for anyone to confirm or rebut that. BUT in discovery, the investors have standing to ask to see the records of such transactions. That is when the underwriter settles for several hundred million or more.
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They discount the settlement based upon “market” values and by settling for pennies on the dollar with small community banks who do not have resources to fight. Thus if they received $2 billion for a particular “securitized pool” that is allocated to a named trust they will instantly make about 10-20 times the normal underwriting fee by merely taking money before or after the money hits the DDP. Money is paid to the investors as long as sales of certificates are robust. Hence the DDP is constantly receiving and disbursing money from many more sources than a fixed group of homeowners or investors.
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It is all about gaps and absences. If a debt was properly securitized, the investor would pay money to the underwriter in exchange for ownership of a certificate. The money would then be subject to fees paid to the underwriter and sellers of the certificates. The balance would be paid into a trust account on which the signatory would be a trust officer of the Trustee bank.
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If a scheme is played, then the money does not go into the trust. It goes to the DDP. From there the money is funneled through conduits to the closing table with the homeowner. By depositing the exact and expected amount of money into the trust account of the closing agent, neither the closing agent nor the homeowner understands that they are being played. They don’t even have enough information to arouse suspicion so that they can ask questions.
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Hence if you combine the proper securitization scheme with the improper one you see that the money is diverted from the so-called plan. This in turn causes the participants to fabricate documents if there is litigation. They MUST fabricate documents because if they produced real documents they would have civil and criminal liability for theft, embezzlement in investor litigation and fraud and perjury in foreclosure litigation.
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It is only by forcing a peek around the multiple layers of curtains fabricated by the players that you can reveal the absence of ownership, authority or even an economic interest — other than the loss of continued revenue from servicing and resales of the same loan through multiple investment vehicles whose value is completely derived from the presumed existence of a party who is the obligee of the debt (owner of the debt, or creditor).
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That party is the DDP — fund that is partially authorized for “reserve” and which the prospectus and trust instrument (PSA) state (1) that the mortgage loan schedule is not the real one and is presented as an example and (2) that the investors acknowledge that they might be paid from their own money from the “reserve.”
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The gap is that the DDP and the reserve are two different accounts. The “reserve” is a pool of money held in trust by, for example, U.S. Bank as trustee for the trust. There is no such account. The DDP is controlled by the underwriter but ownership is intentionally obscured to avoid or evade detection and the liability that would attach if the truth were revealed.
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We win cases not by proving theft from investors but by hammering on the fact that the documents are fabricated, which is true in virtually all cases involving a named trust. We will win a large award if we can show that the intended beneficiaries of the foreclosure were parties other than the obligee on the debt.
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Thus the attorneys, servicers and trustee are protecting their ill-gotten gains and seeking to grab more money and property at the expense of the unnamed investors and homeowners. They are then transforming an expected revenue stream into the illusion of a secured debt owed not to the funding sources but to the intermediaries.
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Foreclosure Offense: Quiet Title and Rescission (TILA and otherwise)

HERE IS AN OUT-OF-THE BOX OFFENSIVE PROCEDURE WE PROPOSE. YOUR COMMENTS APPRECIATED. IT IS BASED UPON THE ASSUMPTION THAT THE LENDER ASSIGNED OR TRANSFERRED OR SOLD THE MORTGAGE AND NOTE RIGHT AFTER THE CLOSING ON YOUR TRANSACTION. LOGICALLY THEN THE PERSON TO WHOM YOU WOULD ADDRESS YOUR TILA, FRAUD, AND DECEPTIVE AND UNFAIR PRACTICES CLAIMS WOULD BE ADDRESSED TO THE NEW OWNER OF THE MORTGAGE AND NOTE. BUT YOU DON’T KNOW WHO THAT IS. AND IN THE TILA AUDIT, IF IT IS DOEN PROPERLY, THE DOCUMENTS ARE REQUESTED AND USUALLY IGNORED. SOOOOOO……

QUIET TITLE:

In essence the reverse of a traditional foreclosure where the owner of the property forecloses the claim of the people against whom he he has filed suit claiming the property free and clear of all encumbrances. 

The significance in foreclosure OFFENSE is that the loan has been assigned, sold and transferred multiple times and broken up into thousands of pieces along with many others that were intermingled in portfolios, sometimes with cross guarantees from one portfolio to another. 

This process started before the first payment was due on the mortgage loan and before the victim/borrower came to know the real facts of the loan withheld from him in an asymmetric information environment (see asymmetric information) in an inter-temporal transaction (see inter-temporal transaction). 

Thus the true owner, against whom rescission could be claimed became unknown to the victim/borrower. The quiet title action sues “John Doe” identified as all persons having an ownership interest in the mortgage lien on the subject property. The allegation is made that while the victim/borrower has been notified of a transaction, the victim/borrower, petitioner has not been advised of who the entities or people are who own this interest. And since there are TILA and other fraudulent violations, the victim/ borrower/petitioner wishes to rescind. Efforts to determine the true owners have led the Petitioner to determine that there may be thousands of entities or owners, none of whom have been disclosed to Petitioner despite attempts to secure said information (contained in the TILA report and demand). 

SERVICE OF PROCESS IS BY PUBLICATION.

If the court demands that the mortgage servicing company be named as nominal Defendant or Respondent, the mortgage servicing company has only one job: to produce information and proof of ownership of the loan. It is doubtful that anyone, least of all the mortgage servicing entity will be able to fulfill this condition. 

Thus the default judgment will be entered, the victim stops paying the mortgage, and has a recorded judgment relieving his property of any mortgage lien and offsetting the note with the refunds and damages payable to the victim, thus satisfying the entire principal of the note and awarding attorney fees to the victim/petitioner.

RESCISSION:

The right to reverse the transaction. Ordinarily rescission involves giving back everything you received in exchange for getting back everything you gave. In this setting it means the right to get back ALL the interest, points, closing costs and attorney fees and other costs at or after closing that you incurred as a result of the transaction. Rescission rights exist under Federal Statutory Law (Truth in Lending Act – TILA, State Deceptive Business practice Acts, and at common law. Remember that rescission doesn’t mean you give back the house. It doesn’t even mean you have to give back the money to the lender against whom you are rescinding — THAT obligation commences AFTER the lender admits to the rescission or it is otherwise decreed and then it is reduced by the refunds of points, interest, closing costs you paid plus damages and attorney fees you suffered as a result of the issues raised in this post. Rescission might not even mean you owe any money at all to the lender. It could mean that the mortgage lien is extingunished and so is the note. It could convert a secured debt, non-dischargeable in bankruptcy to an unsecured debt wholly dischargeable in bankruptcy. And unless the party coming into court or the auction as a “representative” of the lender can prove that they have received their instructions and authorization from a party who is authorized to give those instructions, then they lack authorization, they lack legal standing and they are probably committing a fraud on you, the court and everyone else. 

companion tranche

A specific tier or segment of REMIC security. A REMIC tranche that is structured to absorb a disproportionate amount of the volatility caused by variations in the prepayments of the underlying collateral. Companion tranches are created to be more volatile so that other tranches in the same REMIC, called PAC or TAC tranches, may have more stable cash flows. Hence the name companion. Also called support tranches. The significance in Foreclosure defense is that this is one of the devices used in the covenants or indentures of ASBs that assures payment to the holder of the security. Since the holder of the security is the “owner” of the mortgage and note, it is reasonable to assume that either the holder of the mortgage has been paid by a third party or that a third party assumed the liability.

compliance risk

One of nine risks defined by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC). The risk to earnings or capital arising from violations of or nonconformance with laws, rules, regulations, prescribed practices, or ethical standards. This risk is incorporated in the Federal Reserve definition of legal risk. Participants in the Mortgage Meltdown of 2001-2008 were virtually all out of compliance and upon filing of an administrative complaint to the OCC, could be prosecuted for violations.

conventional mortgage

A mortgage loan based solely upon the value of the mortgaged real estate and the creditworthiness of the borrower. A mortgage loan without insurance or guarantees from a government agency. The significance is that with securitization of the loans there is (a) insurance to the holder of the CLO (b) guarantees of payment from third parties and (c) in practice, guarantees from the Federal Government (witness the Federal Reserve bailout of Bear Stearns and the Federal Reserve policy of allowing investment bankers who are holding CLOs to use those CLOs for loans at the Fed window). The securitized transactions thus converted the original transaction from a conventional loan to a complex consumer credit, insured, guaranteed, pooled security transaction falling far outside of the TILA exemption regarding residential home mortgages eligibility for rescission. 

INTER-TEMPORAL TRANSACTIONS:

Transactions in which the commencement of the terms at the execution of the deal contains terms, risks or provisions that differ from a later time. The significance of this insider term in the MORTGAGE MELTDOWN is a classic real story: the victim is a black man with a perfect (800) FICO score has lived in his house many years and has only 5% left to pay off on his mortgage. He is approached by carefully trained predatory salesman for subprime lender — a lender that the victim had no need for because his credit, finances and personal reputation were excellent. Victim could therefore have qualified for any conventional loan on conventional terms. Victim does not know because it is not disclosed to him that he is being approached with a subprime lending program and that he qualifies for much better terms that are being offered to him — nor that he would be better off NOT refinancing since he is so close to paying off his house. He is convinced to get a new mortgage for interest only payments set at 1% while another 9% accrues. $20,000 in mortgage broker and yield spread premium rebates (kickbacks) are paid up front along with the mortgage proceeds. Within a few months he starts getting notices of increases in his payments which eventually are larger than his entire income. Qualification of the loan by the “lender” was at the payment rate at 1% interest, not at the future rates that would be applied, for which his income would NOT qualify. Victim ends up with risk of foreclosure and blemished credit score. Happy ending. Legal aid stepped in and unwrapped the deal. Many borrowers are seduced into accepting these deals believing that the extra money they are getting out of the mortgage proceeds will help them indefinitely to make future payments. It is the lender’s obligation to disclose that this is not the case, that the borrower’s income does not cover the amount of future payments which the lender understands and the borrower does not (see asymmetric information). 

MORTGAGE MELTDOWN:

An series of events (stemming from the 1983 introduction of derivative securities) created by a tacit cartel of investment bankers and other financial institutions in which borrowers were (approved) “loaned” money on purchase money mortgages based upon false appraisals in the context of contemporaneous securitized transactions where the investment capital was procured by fraud in unregulated security offerings to “qualified” investors, based upon false assurance, false ratings, false insurance backing, and false appraisals of underlying property, income of borrowers and many other factors. The logistics of this scam were revealed in pieces and have threatened the very existence of many financial institutions and the financial markets themselves. Indexes, such as LIBOR, were indirectly manipulated by U.S. financial institutions to hide the true facts. Despite a brief period in which certain arcane “auction markets” froze up (in places and events unknown to the public, business has resumed as usual. The lack of regulation from a responsible, accountable agency or group of agencies has spawned hundreds of lawsuits and millions of foreclosures, many producing counterclaims for far more than the original mortgage and note. No immediate fundamental change is in process in the regulatory scheme, hence it may be expected that the mortgage meltdown will replay in one form or another shortly. 

NINJA LOAN

NO INCOME, NO JOB, NO ASSETS: NO DOCUMENTS, NO VERIFICATION, NO REVIEW BY RISK ANALYSIS COMMITTEE.

Foreclosure Defense: Stated Income Loans, Income Overstated and TILA Rescission

Remember that rescission doesn’t mean you give back the house. It doesn’t even mean you have to give back the money to the lender against whom you are rescinding — THAT obligation commences AFTER the lender admits to the rescission or it is otherwise decreed and then it is reduced by the refunds of points, interest, closing costs you paid plus damages and attorney fees you suffered as a result of the issues raised in this post.

Rescission might not even mean you owe any money at all to the lender. It could mean that the mortgage lien is extingunished and so is the note. And unless the party coming into court or the auction as a “representative” of the lender can prove that they have received their instructions and authorization from a party who is authorized to give those instructions, then they lack authorization, they lack legal standing and they are probably committing a fraud on you, the court and everyone else. 

Most lawyers have a knee jerk reaction in advising clients about challenging foreclosure when the stated income application contains mistatements or outright fraud. They tell their clients that they better not open this box because of all the criminal and civil liability issues that will arise from the deceptive information stating the income of the borrower. WRONG! Fear tactics and unimaginative and uninformed lawyers are allowing people to lose their homes when they should be keeping their homes and getting paid damages for what was done tot hem. This advice they are giving is in most cases completely incorrect.

The lender has an obligation to verify the income. As such, when it failed to verify the income it waived it’s right to complain that the income was wrong because the courts say that the lender did not reasonably rely on the stated income, as set forth in the mortgage application. And when they failed to verify the true value of the property, as they were supposed to do to protect your interest as their “client”, they knowingly assisted in defrauding you out of the benefit of the bargain you thought you were getting. In fact, you got a home worth less than the mortgage indebtedness you signed at closing and you didn’t know it because they didn’t want you to know it.

This might seem overly lenient or liberal” to some, but it isn’t. In all cases but a few, the application is filed out by someone other than borrower and the person filing out the application puts down the income necessary to justify the the amount of the loan sought without even asking what the real income is. If the subject comes up most borrowers tell the mortgage broker or representative that their income is not what is stated on the application, and they are told they must submit the application “as is” in order to get the loan.

The old “don’t worry, everybody is doing it” is true — that is exactly what was happening. And the responsibilities of the “lender” who was in actuality a mortgage broker which was not disclosed (as required by law) to the borrower is unchanged: they have a fiducuiary duty to the borrower to present the borrower with a loan program (with everybody’s role and compensation and risk fully disclosed) that will work given the economic, income and liability circumstances of the borrower. We have many stories where people were given mortgage loans in the millions based upon zero actual income or close to zero.

Investment speculation was promoted through encouragement of speculators to take ARM financing and then flip the homes in the ever growing housing market and explosion of housing prices. Advertising for refinancing, first home financing, HELOCs (which are now often dischargeable in bankruptcy and are fully within the right to rescind the transction stated in Truth in lending Act, encouraged every man, woman and child to become further and further in debt, diverting capital from the economy, the marketplace and main street to a select few on Wall Street, which is why some salaries now for the same job require greater qualifications at less pay than they were getting with fewer qualifications and far more pay 20-30 years ago.

See the following article from the Bakruptcy Law Network for more information. BLN is a very good source on a wide variety of issues but the old expression that “he works with a hammer tends to look at everything as a nail” comes to mind. Most people petitioning for bankruptcy are not protecting their interests in the best possible way, in my opinion, but of course your own attorney is supposed to know what is best.

First of all if you are going to file for bankruptcy, given the fact that the mortgage and note have been transferred many times more than once, there is a question about who the creditor is and WHETHER THE CREDITOR HAS BEEN PAID ALL OR PART OF THE “MISSING” PAYMENTS.

If some investor bought your loan and the investMent banking house paid some of the payments to the investor to whom was sold a CDO or CMO, then the loan servicing company that is posting notice of sale or suing you for foreclosure has no idea whether the payments have been made on YOUR note or not.

FRANKLY YOU DON’T EVEN KNOW IF A THIRD PARTY MADE YOUR PAYMENTS TO THE REAL CREDITOR ON YOUR MORTGAGE AND NOTE AND IN ALL PROBABILITY SOMEONE DID PAY SOME PORTION OF THE RETURN DUE TO THE OWNER OF THE CDO THAT HAS AN INTEREST IN THE MORTGAGE ON YOUR PROPERTY.

Thus the creditor you name IN A BANKRUPTCY PETITION OR LAWSUIT OR PETITION FOR EMERGENCY INJUNCTION TO STOP THE SALE OR EVICTION should be a contingent creditor, the amount due on the note should be a contingent liability, and the so-called security aspect is also contingent.

Remember that rescission doesn’t mean you give back the house. It doesn’t even mean you have togive back the money to the ldner aginst whom you are rescinding — THAT obllgation commences AFTER the lender admits tot he rescission or it is otherwise decreed and then it is reduced by the refunds of points, interest, closing costs you paid plus dmages you suffered as a result of the issues raised in this post.

Rescission might not even mean you owe any money at all to the lender. It could mean that the mortgage lien is extingunished and so is the note. And unless the party coming into court or the auction as a “representative” of the lender can prove that they have received their instructions and authorization from a party who is authorized to give those instructions, then they lack authorization, they lack legal standing and they are probably committing a fraud on you, the court and everyone else. 

 

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“Liar Loans”—Who’s the Real Liar?

A recent article in The Wall Street Journal, Are Borrowers Free to Lie?, talks about a recent Bankruptcy Court decision in the Northern District of California.In re Hill dealt with an attempt by National City Bank to hold the Hills’ mortgage loan non-dischargeable, meaning that, despite the loss of their home due to foreclosure  and their subsequent bankruptcy, they would have to pay it back. How did the Hills get in this situation? They did what many borrowers were urged to do over the past several years: take out a “stated income” loan.

Stated Income loans, also called “liar loans” or NINJA (No Income, No Job, No Assets) loans, were mortgage loans in which no proof of income, employment or assets was required. Rather, the borrower simply “states” on the loan application what his or her income is, and the bank does no checking. No pay stubs, no tax returns, nothing. Ask for a mortgage, in virtually any amount, and get it without any investigation of ability to pay, examination, or common sense. Common sense would have disclosed that something was very wrong in the Hills’ case.

The Hills were 54 years old, and worked as delivery drivers and employee for an auto-parts distributor. They signed a loan application falsely stating they earned about a combined $191,000 a year. They claimed that their independent broker and the bank put the income figures into the applications without their knowledge and that they didn’t read them before signing.

Based on the obviously false figures in the application, following the foreclosure on their home and the Hills  filing for bankruptcy, National City Bank, the lender on the loan, asked the Bankruptcy Court to find that their debt to the bank should not be discharged because they lied on their mortgage application. While agreeing that the income statement was false, the Bankruptcy Court disagreed that the Hills should lose their discharge.

The Court stated:

While the Court finds and concludes that the debtors made a material false representation concerning their financial condition to the Bank in October 2006, with knowledge of its falsity and the intent to deceive the Bank, the Court finds and concludes that the Bank’s nondischargeability claim under § 523(a)(2)(B) must fail. The Bank failed to prove that it reasonably relied on the Debtors’ false representation concerning their income, as set forth in the October Loan Application. As a result, the Bank’s claim has been discharged.  Judgment will be ordered accordingly.

In other words, because National City knew or should have known that the Hills misrepresented their income and didn’t check it out, it didn’t meet one of the criteria for nondischargeability: it didn’t rely on the Hills’ false statements in making the loan. The Hills’ loan was found to be dischargeable.

The Hill decision is an important one. It makes clear that banks cannot place sole responsibility for their poor lending practices and decisions on the shoulders of the borrowers. Mr. and Mrs. Hill aren’t without fault, but the fault was on both sides. The Hills lost their home of 20 years and had to file for bankruptcy. The bank lost its money.

Sounds to me as if the Court restored a bit of balance to the equation.

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