Motion Practice: Arizona Statutes Requires GOOD FAITH and ALL Parties to be Notified

The statute says that the trustee mails the notice to all affected parties at least three months before the sale date. In a non-judicial sale, then, ALL parties having a potential stake in the outcome must be notified. This is the only way the statute can be constitutional. It’s not up to the Trustee to adjudicate the rights of the parties if he wants to keep his exemption from liability, but if he knowingly fails to notify other parties whom he knows to exist, then it is obvious he is taking an interest in the litigation.

The attack on the trustee sale would simply be a certified letter followed by a lawsuit if necessary directed at the trustee. The letter would be an objection to the sale because the trustee has failed to notify the creditors, has not made adequate inquiry into the identity of all parties, and damages for slander of title. The objection, an early draft of which is contained in the forms on this blog,  would also state that the obligation has been satisfied in whole or in part by third party payments from credit default swaps, insurance, guarantees, buy-backs, federal bailouts etc.

The demand would be for proof of inquiry — the “pull-down report” (title report on the property) and all other efforts to identify the parties in what the trustee knows to be a securitized transaction with multiple intermediaries, each of whom appears to claim a stake in the property, and multiple creditors, none of whom have been notified, who have not provided or been asked to provide an accounting for all transactions relating to the their purchase of asset backed securities creating their beneficial ownership in a pool of assets that includes the subject loan, and whether any allocations have been made to account for third party payments.

In the alternative, the demand would be that the foreclosure be conducted in accordance with Arizona statutes governing judicial foreclosures that would then pout the onus on the beneficiary to allege they are they are the creditor, that the obligation is due and to present allegations and , exhibits, witnesses and proof that they are entitled to a judgment in foreclosure. The non-judicial statutes could not have been intended as a direct confrontation with the 5th and 14th Amendment of the United States Constitution requiring no deprivation of life, liberty or property without due process. If that were otherwise, the statute would be unconstitutional on its face.

33-455. Conveyance of absolute title by judicial sale; effect upon rights of persons not parties

Every conveyance of real property by a commissioner, sheriff or other officer legally authorized to sell such property by virtue of a decree or judgment of any court within this state, shall be effectual to pass absolute title to the property to the purchaser thereof, but the conveyance shall not affect the right, title or interest of any person other than the parties to the conveyance, decree or judgment, and those claiming under them.

33-456. Passage of title to real or personal property by judgment

When a judgment directs the conveyance of real property or the delivery of personal property, the judgment shall pass title to such property without any act by the party against whom the judgment is given.

33-458. Resale of realty with intent to defraud; classification

A person who, after selling, bartering or disposing of, or, after executing a bond or agreement for the sale of land, again knowingly and with intent to defraud previous or subsequent purchasers, sells, barters or disposes of, or executes a bond or agreement to sell, barter or dispose of the same land or any part thereof to any other person for a valuable consideration, is guilty of a class 4 felony.

33-705. Purchase money mortgage or deed of trust; priority

A mortgage or deed of trust that is given as security for a loan made to purchase the real property that is encumbered by the mortgage or deed of trust has priority over all other liens and encumbrances that are incurred against the purchaser before acquiring title to the real property.

33-706. Assignment of mortgage; recording as notice

An assignment of a mortgage may be recorded in like manner as a mortgage, and the record is notice to all persons subsequently deriving title to the mortgage from the assignor.

33-708. Release by attorney in fact

An attorney in fact to whom the money due on a mortgage or deed of trust is paid may execute the release provided for in this article. Such acknowledgment of satisfaction or deed of release, duly acknowledged and recorded, showing the docket and page or recording number, releases the mortgage or deed of trust and revests in the mortgagor or person who executed the deed of trust, or his legal representatives, all title to the property affected by the mortgage or deed of trust.

33-721. Foreclosure of mortgage by court action

Mortgages of real property and deeds of trust of a type not included in the definition of deed of trust provided in section 33-801, notwithstanding any other provision in the mortgage or deed, shall be foreclosed by action in a court.

33-722. Election between action on debt or to foreclose

If separate actions are brought on the debt and to foreclose the mortgage given to secure it, the plaintiff shall elect which to prosecute and the other shall be dismissed.

33-741. Definitions

In this article, unless the context otherwise requires:

1. “Account servicing agentmeans a joint agent of seller and purchaser, appointed under the contract or under a separate agreement executed by the seller and the purchaser, to hold documents and collect monies due under the contract, who does business under the laws of this state as a bank, trust company, escrow agent, savings and loan association, insurance company or real estate broker, or who is licensed, chartered or regulated by the federal deposit insurance corporation or the comptroller of the currency, or who is a member of the state bar of Arizona.

2. “Contract” means a contract for conveyance of real property, a contract for deed, a contract to convey, an agreement for sale or any similar contract through which a seller has conveyed to a purchaser equitable title in property and under which the seller is obligated to convey to the purchaser the remainder of the seller’s title in the property, whether legal or equitable, on payment in full of all monies due under the contract. This article does not apply to purchase contracts and receipts, escrow instructions or similar executory contracts which are intended to control the rights and obligations of the parties to executory contracts pending the closing of a sale or purchase transaction.

3. “Monies due under the contract” means:

(a) Any principal and interest payments which are currently due and payable to the seller.

(b) Any principal and interest payments which are currently due and payable to other persons who hold existing liens and encumbrances on the property, the unpaid principal portion of which constitutes a portion of the purchase price, as stated in the contract, if the principal and interest payments were paid by the seller pursuant to the terms of the contract and to protect his interest in the property.

(c) Any delinquent taxes and assessments, including interest and penalty, due and payable to any governmental entity authorized to impose liens on the property which are the purchaser’s obligations under the contract, if the taxes and assessments were paid by the seller pursuant to the terms of the contract and to protect his interest in the property.

(d) Any unpaid premiums for any policy or policies of insurance which are the obligation of the purchaser to maintain under the contract, if the premiums were paid by the seller pursuant to the terms of the contract and to protect his interest in the property.

4. “Payoff deed” means the deed that the seller is obligated to deliver to the purchaser on payment in full of all monies due under the contract to convey to the purchaser the remainder of the seller’s title in the property, whether legal or equitable, as prescribed by the terms of the contract.

5. “Property” means the real property described in the contract and any personal property included under the contract.

6. “Purchaser” means the person or any successor in interest to the person who has contracted to purchase the seller’s title to the property which is the subject of the contract.

7. “Seller” means the person or any successor in interest to the person who has contracted to convey his title to the property which is the subject of the contract.

33-807. Sale of trust property; power of trustee; foreclosure of trust deed

A. By virtue of his position, a power of sale is conferred upon the trustee of a trust deed under which the trust property may be sold, in the manner provided in this chapter, after a breach or default in performance of the contract or contracts, for which the trust property is conveyed as security, or a breach or default of the trust deed. At the option of the beneficiary, a trust deed may be foreclosed in the manner provided by law for the foreclosure of mortgages on real property in which event chapter 6 of this title governs the proceedings. The beneficiary or trustee shall constitute the proper and complete party plaintiff in any action to foreclose a deed of trust. The power of sale may be exercised by the trustee without express provision therefor in the trust deed.

B. The trustee or beneficiary may file and maintain an action to foreclose a deed of trust at any time before the trust property has been sold under the power of sale. A sale of trust property under the power of sale shall not be held after an action to foreclose the deed of trust has been filed unless the foreclosure action has been dismissed.

C. The trustee or beneficiary may file an action for the appointment of a receiver according to sections 12-1241 and 33-702. The right to appointment of a receiver shall be independent of and may precede the exercise of any other right or remedy.

D. The power of sale of trust property conferred upon the trustee shall not be exercised before the ninety-first day after the date of the recording of the notice of the sale. The sale shall not be set for a Saturday or legal holiday. The trustee may schedule more than one sale for the same date, time and place.

E. The trustee need only be joined as a party in legal actions pertaining to a breach of the trustee’s obligation under this chapter or under the deed of trust. Any order of the court entered against the beneficiary is binding upon the trustee with respect to any actions that the trustee is authorized to take by the trust deed or by this chapter. If the trustee is joined as a party in any other action, the trustee is entitled to be immediately dismissed and to recover costs and reasonable attorney fees from the person joining the trustee.

33-808. Notice of trustee’s sale

A. The trustee shall give written notice of the time and place of sale legally describing the trust property to be sold by each of the following methods:

1. Recording a notice in the office of the recorder of each county where the trust property is situated.

2. Giving notice as provided in section 33-809 to the extent applicable.

3. Posting a copy of the notice of sale, at least twenty days before the date of sale in some conspicuous place on the trust property to be sold, if posting can be accomplished without a breach of the peace. If access to the trust property is denied because a common entrance to the property is restricted by a limited access gate or similar impediment, the property shall be posted by posting notice at that gate or impediment. Notice shall also be posted at one of the places provided for posting public notices at any building that serves as a location of the superior court in the county where the trust property is to be sold. Posting is deemed completed on the date the trust property is posted. The posting of notice at the superior court location is deemed a ministerial act.

4. Publication of the notice of sale in a newspaper of general circulation in each county in which the trust property to be sold is situated. The notice of sale shall be published at least once a week for four consecutive weeks. The last date of publication shall not be less than ten days prior to the date of sale. Publication is deemed completed on the date of the first of the four publications of the notice of sale pursuant to this paragraph.

B. The sale shall be held at the time and place designated in the notice of sale on a day other than a Saturday or legal holiday between 9:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. mountain standard time at a specified place on the trust property, at a specified place at any building that serves as a location of the superior court or at a specified place at a place of business of the trustee, in any county in which part of the trust property to be sold is situated.

C. The notice of sale shall contain:

1. The date, time and place of the sale. The date, time and place shall be set pursuant to section 33-807, subsection D. The date shall be no sooner than the ninety-first day after the date that the notice of sale was recorded.

2. The street address, if any, or identifiable location as well as the legal description of the trust property.

3. The county assessor’s tax parcel number for the trust property or the tax parcel number of a larger parcel of which the trust property is a part.

4. The original principal balance as shown on the deed of trust. If the amount is not shown on the deed of trust, it shall be listed as “unspecified”.

5. The names and addresses, as of the date the notice of sale is recorded, of the beneficiary and the trustee, the name and address of the original trustor as stated in the deed of trust, the signature of the trustee and the basis for the trustee’s qualification pursuant to section 33-803, subsection A, including an express statement of the paragraph under subsection A on which the qualification is based. The address of the beneficiary shall not be in care of the trustee.

6. The telephone number of the trustee.

7. The name of the state or federal licensing or regulatory body or controlling agency of the trustee as prescribed by section 33-803, subsection A.

D. The notice of sale shall be sufficient if made in substantially the following form:

Notice of Trustee’s Sale

The following legally described trust property will be sold, pursuant to the power of sale under that certain trust deed recorded in docket or book _______________________ at page __________ records of ______________ county, Arizona, at public auction to the highest bidder at (specific place of sale as permitted by law) _______________, in _______________ county, in or near _______________, Arizona, on ________, ____, at ___________ o’clock ___m. of said day:

(street address, if any, or identifiable

location of trust property)

(legal description of trust property)

Tax parcel number _______________

Original principal balance $________________________

Name and address of beneficiary ______________________________



Name and address of original trustor _________________________



Name, address and telephone number of trustee ________________



Signature of trustee _____________________________

Manner of trustee qualification ___________________________

Name of trustee’s regulator _______________________________

Dated this _____________ day of ______________, ____.


E. Any error or omission in the information required by subsection C or D of this section, other than an error in the legal description of the trust property or an error in the date, time or place of sale, shall not invalidate a trustee’s sale. Any error in the legal description of the trust property shall not invalidate a trustee’s sale if considered as a whole the information provided is sufficient to identify the trust property being sold. If there is an error or omission in the legal description so that the trust property cannot be identified, or if there is an error in the date, time or place of sale, the trustee shall record a cancellation of notice of sale. The trustee or any person furnishing information to the trustee shall not be subject to liability for any error or omission in the information required by subsection C of this section except for the wilful and intentional failure to provide such information. This subsection does not apply to claims made by an insured under any policy of title insurance.

F. The notice of trustee sale may not be rerecorded for any reason. This subsection does not prohibit the recording of a new or subsequent notice of sale regarding the same property.

33-820. Trustee’s right to rely; attorney’s right to act for trustee and beneficiary

A. In carrying out his duties under the provisions of this chapter or any deed of trust, a trustee, shall when acting in good faith, have the absolute right to rely upon any written direction or information furnished to him by the beneficiary.

B. An attorney for the beneficiary shall also be qualified to act as attorney for the trustee or to be the trustee.

Pre-foreclosure Period

Court foreclosures begin when the lender files for foreclosure in court and records a notice of the pending lawsuit (Lis Pendens). The court filing includes the debt and default amount. The borrower and any junior lien holders are notified either in person or by publication. If the borrower does not respond to the court action, the court can rule against them and set the amount owed to the lender. The county clerk then directs the county sheriff to conduct a sale of the property to recover the amount owed.

An out-of-court foreclosure sale may occur if a clause in the trust deed permits the lender to sell the property if a borrower defaults. To start the foreclosure, the trustee records a notice of sale, and the sale occurs at least three months after the notice is recorded. Until 5:00 p.m. the day before the sale, the borrower or any junior lien holders may stop the foreclosure by paying the default amount, fees, and costs.

Notice of Sale / Auction

For court foreclosures, the sheriff conducts the sheriff’s sale about 45 days after the county clerk directs the sale. It is a public auction, and anyone may bid.  The bid price must be paid to the sheriff by 5:00 p.m. the day after the sheriff’s sale. After the sale, a certificate of sale is issued.  If the property is not abandoned, the redemption period is six months from the sale date. If the borrower does not redeem, any secondary lenders may do so within a specified time. To redeem the property, the total amount owed plus fees and costs must be paid. If no one redeems the property, the sheriff transfers ownership to the winning bidder.

For out-of-court trustee’s sales, the notice of sale contains a property description, and the date, time and place of the sale. The notice is recorded, and the trustee mails the notice to all affected parties at least three months before the sale date. The notice appears in a local newspaper once a week for four weeks, with the last notice published no less than 10 days before the sale date. At least 20 days before the sale, the notice is posted on the property and the county courthouse. Starting the day before the sale and up to the sale, the trustee must provide the opening bid of the sale to anyone who asks or the sale may have to be postponed.

The trustee or the trustee’s agent conducts the sale at the property, the courthouse, or the trustee’s office.  All bidders must provide a refundable $10,000 deposit in order to bid; the trustee keeps the deposit of the winning bidder. The sale can be postponed up to 90 days by announcement at the originally scheduled sale. The winning bidder has until 5:00 p.m. the next day to pay the full bid price, after which the trustee transfer ownership of the property within seven days. The proceeds of the sale are paid to the primary lender, then to any secondary lenders. There is no right of redemption for the borrower after an out-of-court foreclosure sale.

3 Responses


    If there is no condition precedent for a beneficiary to bring a sale. How can you enforce a Good faith provision of law? (Your scrambling for answers..)

    1. The chain of title is specific to interests and ownership rights. To foreclose on real property, the plaintiff must be able to establish the chain of title entitling it to relief.

    2. In arguments brought, MERS has acknowledged, and recent cases have held, that MERS is a mere “nominee” — an entity appointed by the true owner simply for the purpose of holding property in order to facilitate transactions.

    3. Recent court opinions stress that this defect is not just a procedural but is a substantive failure, one that is fatal to the plaintiff’s legal ability to foreclose. Since no evidence of MERS’ ownership of the underlying note has been offered, and other courts have concluded that MERS does not own the underlying notes, this court is convinced that MERS had no interest it could transfer to Citibank.

    4. Since MERS did not own the underlying note, it could not transfer the beneficial interest of the Deed of Trust to another. Any attempt to transfer the beneficial interest of a trust deed without ownership of the underlying note is void under California law. In support, the judge cited In Re Vargas (California Bankruptcy Court); Landmark v. Kesler (Kansas Supreme Court); LaSalle Bank v. Lamy (a New York case); and In Re Foreclosure Cases (the “Boyko” decision from Ohio Federal Court).

    5. Lender “A” originates the loan and does so under the program guidelines of lender “B” who sells it loans to a secondary entity as a bone-fide sale. The secondary conduit is actually an “investment trust” representing a fractionalized interest in the whole loans it has purchased

    6. For purposes of protecting the assets from bankruptcy the seller actually transfers the assets to Special Purpose Entity where the loans are housed under a bona fide sale. The cash flow from the SPE is what is sold to the investment Trust.

    7. Therefore can plaintiff’s counsel correctly pursue arguments the sale of the cash flow is a condition subsequent to the transfer and bona fide sale to the SPE. Since the subsequent sale to the SPE assigns all of its cash flow to the trust , the trust upon liquidation has abandoned the assets underlying the cash flow no longer enforceable under TARP.

    8. Here is where our contention for a subrogation claim made pro tanto comes into play and suffices for government intervention under eminent domain. It also explains why the government must rely on MERS to enforce its rights under to receive the assets under its FDIC member banks guarantees which now seek to transfer stock certificates into whole loan files and then reconstruct the right of foreclosure as a holder in due course.

    9. Fannie and Freddie are the holder of certificates claimed in receivership. How in the FDIC are these certificates cashed into real property assets or right to foreclose? Its solely to reestablish basis in assets devalued down to zero under a receiver and by member bank charges taken by the FDIC. There is no mark to market valuation here…other than by a controlled sale to reestablish basis. The sale is a trustee sale…CONTROLLED TRUSTEES SALE….where the buyer and the seller is the beneficiary for credit back. It’s a reverse repurchase “accounting” gimmick used on Wall Street and now by the US government.

    There is no condition precedent for a beneficiary to bring a sale.


  2. well this never happened they just marched onward and stole my home . its war now

  3. correction please, it should be “Good ” not ” Food”. by the way , neil do you have something for California, since it is also a non -judicial state? thank you very much.

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